Assisted Reproduction Concerns


Risk of Birth Defects and Disorders in Children conceived through IVF


Since the first birth of an IVF baby in 1978, more than 3 million children have been born worldwide following IVF treatments. Numerous studies have been conducted to assess the overall health of IVF children and the majority of studies on the safety of IVF have been reassuring. As more time has passed and the dataset has enlarged, some studies have raised doubts about the equivalence of risks for IVF babies as compared to naturally conceived babies.


A major problem in interpreting the data arises from the fact that comparing a group of infertile couples to a group of normally fertile couples is not the proper comparison to make if one wants to assess the risk that IVF technology engenders. Infertile couples, by definition, do not have normal reproductive function and might be expected to have babies with more abnormalities than a group of normally fertile couples. This said, even if the studies suggesting an increased risk to babies born after IVF prove to be true, the absolute risk of any abnormal outcome appears to be small.


Singletons conceived with IVF tend to be born slightly earlier than naturally conceived babies (39.1 weeks as compared to 39.5 weeks). IVF twins are not born earlier or later than naturally conceived twins. The risk of a singleton IVF conceived baby being born with a birth weight under 5 pounds nine ounces (2500 grams) is 12.5% vs. 7% in naturally conceived singletons.


Birth Defects
The risk of birth defects in the normal population is 2-3 %. In IVF babies the birth defect rate may be 2.6-3.9%. The difference is seen predominately in singleton males. Studies to date have not been large enough to prove a link between IVF treatment and specific types of birth defects.


Reports on the risk of birth defects associated with ICSI (compared to those associated with conventional fertilization in IVF cycles) have yielded conflicting results. The most comprehensive study conducted thus far, based on data from five-year-old children, has suggested that ICSI is associated with an increased risk of certain major congenital anomalies. However, whether the association is due to the ICSI procedure itself, or to inherent sperm defects, could not be determined because the study did not distinguish between male factor conditions and other causes of infertility. Note that even if there is an increased risk of congenital malformations in children conceived with ICSI, the risk is relatively low (4.2% versus ~3% of those conceived naturally). The impact of ICSI on the intellectual and motor development of children conceived via ICSI also has been controversial. An early report suggested that development in such children lagged significantly behind that of children resulting from conventional IVF or those conceived naturally. However, more recent studies from larger groups, using standardized criteria for evaluation, have not detected any differences in the development or the abilities of children born after ICSI, conventional IVF, or natural conception.


Imprinting Disorders
Imprinting disorders rare disorders having to do with whether a maternal or paternal gene is inappropriately expressed. In two studies approximately 4% of children with the imprinting disorder called Beckwith-Weidemann Syndrome were born after IVF, which is more than expected. A large Danish study however found no increased risk of imprinting disorders in children conceived with the assistance of IVF. Since the incidence of this syndrome in the general population is 1/15,000, even if there is a 2 to 5-fold increase to 2-5/15,000, this absolute risk is very low.


Childhood Cancers
Most studies have not reported an increased risk in childhood cancers with the exception of retinoblastoma: In one study in the Netherlands, five cases were reported after IVF treatment which is 5 to 7 times more than expected.


Genetic Disorders
The prevalence of sex chromosome abnormalities in children conceived via ICSI is higher than observed in the general IVF population, but the absolute difference between the two groups is small (0.8% to 1.0% in ICSI offspring vs. 0.2% in the general IVF population). The reason for the increased prevalence of chromosomal anomalies observed in ICSI offspring is not clear. Whereas it may result from the ICSI procedure itself, it might also reflect a direct paternal effect. Men with sperm problems (low count, poor motility, and/or abnormal shape) are more likely themselves to have genetic abnormalities and often produce sperm with abnormal chromosomes; the sex chromosomes (X and Y) in the sperm of men with abnormal semen parameters appear especially prone to abnormalities. If sperm with abnormal chromosomes produce pregnancies, these pregnancies will likely carry these same defects. The prevalence of translocations (a re-arrangement of chromosomes that increases the risk of abnormal chromosomes in egg or sperm and can cause miscarriage) of paternal origin and of de novo balanced translocations in ICSI offspring (0.36%) also appears higher than in the general population (0.07%).


Some men are infertile because the tubes connecting the testes to the penis did not form correctly. This condition, called congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), can be bypassed by aspirating sperm directly from the testicles or epididymis, and using them in IVF with ICSI to achieve fertilization. However, men with CBAVD are affected with a mild form of cystic fibrosis (CF), and this gene will be passed on to their offspring. All men with CVABD, as well as their partners, should be tested for CF gene mutations prior to treatment, so that the risk of their offspring having CF can be estimated and appropriate testing performed. It is important to understand that there may be CF gene mutations that are not detectable by current testing and parents who test negative for CF mutations can still have children affected with CF.


Some men have no sperm in their ejaculate because their testes do not produce adequate quantities (non- obstructive azoospermia). This can be due to a number of reasons such as prior radiation, chemotherapy or undescended testicles. In some men, small deletions on their Y chromosomes lead to extremely low or absent sperm counts. Testicular biopsy and successful retrieval of viable sperm can be used to fertilize eggs with ICSI. However, any sperm containing a Y chromosomal microdeletion will be transmitted to the offspring. Thus the risk that male offspring might later manifest disorders including infertility is very real. However, men without a detectable deletion by blood testing can generate offspring having a Y chromosome microdeletion, because the chromosomes in the sperm may not be the same as those seen when tested by a blood test.


Risks to the Female Patient


Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
To increase the number of eggs that develop, a series of hormone shots are given. The hormones used in this regimen are known to have, or suspected of having a variety of side effects, some minor and some potentially major. The most serious side effect of ovarian stimulation is ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Its symptoms can include increased ovarian size, nausea and vomiting, accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, breathing difficulties, an increased concentration of red blood cells, kidney and liver problems, and in the most severe cases, blood clots, kidney failure, or death. The severe cases affect only a very small percentage of women who undergo in vitro fertilization—0.2 percent or less of all treatment cycles—and the very severe are an even smaller percentage. Only about 1.4 in 100,000 cycles has lead to kidney failure, for example. OHSS occurs at two stages: early, 1 to 5 days after egg retrieval (as a result of the hCG trigger); and late, 10 to 15 days after retrieval (as a result of the hCG if pregnancy occurs). The risk of severe complications is about 4 to 12 times higher if pregnancy occurs which is why sometimes no embryo transfer is performed to reduce the possibility of this occurring.


Cancer
Many have worried that the use of fertility drugs could lead to an increased risk of cancer—in particular, breast, ovarian, and uterine (including endometrial) cancers. One must be careful in interpreting epidemiological studies of women taking fertility drugs, because all of these cancers are more common in women with infertility, so merely comparing women taking fertility drugs with women in the general population inevitably shows an increased incidence of cancer. When the analysis takes into account the increased cancer risk due to infertility per se, the evidence does not support a relationship between fertility drugs and an increased prevalence of breast or ovarian cancer. More research is required to examine what the long-term impact fertility drugs may be on breast and ovarian cancer prevalence rates. For uterine cancer, the numbers are too small to achieve statistical significance, but it is at least possible that use of fertility drugs may indeed cause some increased risk of uterine cancer.


Risks of Pregnancy
Pregnancies that occur with IVF are associated with increased risks of certain conditions. Some of these risks stem from the higher average age of women pregnant by IVF and the fact that the underlying cause of infertility may be the cause of the increased risk of pregnancy complications. There may be additional risks related to the IVF procedure per se, but it is difficult to assign the relative contributions.


Currently, more than 30% of IVF pregnancies are twins or higher-order multiple gestations (triplets or greater), and about half of all IVF babies are a result of multiple gestations. Identical twinning occurs in 1.5% to 4.5% of IVF pregnancies. IVF twins deliver on average three weeks earlier and weigh 1,000 gm less than IVF singletons. Of note, IVF twins do as well as spontaneously conceived twins. Triplet (and greater) pregnancies deliver before 32 weeks (7 months) in almost half of cases.


Additionally, while pre-embryos are transferred directly into the uterus with IVF, ectopic (tubal, cervical and abdominal) pregnancies as well as, abnormal intra-uterine pregnancies have occurred either alone or concurrently with a normal intra-uterine pregnancy . These abnormal pregnancies oftentimes require medical treatments with methotrexate (a weak chemotherapy drug) or surgery to treat the abnormal pregnancy. Side effects of methotrexate include nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, cramping, mouth ulcers, headache, skin rash, sensitivity to the sun and temporary abnormalities in liver function tests. Risks of surgery include the risks of anesthesia, scar tissue formation inside the uterus, infection, bleeding and injury to any internal organs.


The most important maternal complications associated with multiple gestation are preterm labor and delivery, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes (see prior section on Risks to Woman). Others include gall bladder problems, skin problems, excess weight gain, anemia, excessive nausea and vomiting, and exacerbation of pregnancy-associated gastrointestinal symptoms including reflux and constipation. Chronic back pain, intermittent heartburn, postpartum laxity of the abdominal wall, and umbilical hernias also can occur. Triplets and above increase the risk to the mother of more significant complications including post-partum hemorrhage and transfusion.


The information in this section is based on data published by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine


Sperm Quality


Sperm quality on the day of egg retrieval is often related to what happened in the male's body 3 months ago. This is because sperm development takes almost 3 months.


Listed below are guidelines to help insure the semen specimen is of the best possible quality.


  1. A fever of 101 degrees Fahrenheit or higher within 3 months prior to IVF treatment may adversely affect sperm quality. Sperm count and motility may appear normal, but fertilization may not occur. If you become sick before or during the IVF cycle, please notify your physician, and take Tylenol to keep the temperature below 101 degrees F.
  2. Keep the use of alcohol and cigarettes to a minimum before and during IVF treatment. Do not use any "recreational" drugs.
  3. If any prescription medication has been taken during the last 3 months, notify your physician.
  4. Do not sit in hot tubs, spas, Jacuzzis, or saunas during or 3 months prior to the IVF cycle.
  5. Do not begin any new form of endurance exercise during the 3 months prior to the IVF cycle. Physical activity at a moderate level is acceptable and encouraged.
  6. Do not wear tight pants or tight underwear during or 3 months before the IVF cycle.
  7. Tell your physician if you have ever had genital herpes or suspect you may have been exposed to genital herpes in the past. Also tell your physician if you have pre lesion symptoms, develop a lesion, or have healing lesions before or during the IVF cycle.
  8. Refrain from ejaculation for 2-3 days, but not more than 5 days, before collecting the semen sample for the IVF cycle.